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If the process of diploma recognition is not finished, foreign citizen may enroll provisionally, provided that the process for diploma recognition had already been initiated. Foreign students have the status as self-financing students. The University determines the study programmes, rules of studying and examination and evaluation procedures, and this information needs to be transparent and available to students.

The study year is organised in two semesters: winter and summer. The Governing Board, by special decision, determines when semesters begin. Semester study programmes last 16 weeks. Examinations are held in the last week of the semester. After the end of the semester, the second examination deadline is organised. The Senate defines the structure and content of the study programmes and courses.

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The initiative for new study programmes comes from the faculty. The introduction of new study programmes involves certain procedures to elaborate the justification for the new programme. The procedure begins with the faculty council. The Senate, on the recommendation of the rector, appoints a commission to work on the elaboration paper and carry out all other activities necessary for defining the new study programme.

Once the elaboration paper is prepared, the faculty council, Senate and Governing Board of the university adopt it. When the documentation has been completed in accordance with the Acts of the Council of Higher Education Initial Request for Accreditation of Study Programmes, Rulebook on Accreditation, Criteria and Standards for Accreditation , the documentation has to be accredited.

The accreditation process is the responsibility of the Council of Higher Education, i.

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If a study programme is to be changed by up to 30 ECTS, it does not need to be accredited. When changing the contents of a study programme, each university unit must submit its reasons for doing so to the university authorities. Assessment, progression, certification and degree. The most common form of assessment for students is written examinations, but there are also oral examinations. Students financed from the state budget who do not fulfil the criteria to continue their studies as a budget-funded student may continue as self-financing students.


Conversely, self-financing students who pass all exams may become budget-funded students if there are places available on their study programme. Those students are chosen on the basis of the ECTS gained and academic performance during their studies. The final examination is an individual elaboration of a particular issue in a field related to the study programme. Students on undergraduate applied study programmes may progress to the level of Master.

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  • Academic staff are professors directly involved in the provision of study programmes. Teaching assistants, senior lectors, lectors and laboratory assistants are all involved in the realisation of study programmes.

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    They need to be doctoral students to already hold a Master degree, with the exception of laboratory assistants , and maintain an average grade of B during their studies. All the categories of academic staff, except full professor, are appointed by the Senate of the University for a period of five years, after a public competition. Full professors only are appointed for unlimited periods of time. In accordance with the adopted changes and amendments of the Law on Higher Education, elections for the award of academic titles are performed by the university. In order to be able to use the title of full professor, one needs to hold a doctoral degree, have a high level of knowledge in the particular field, which is confirmed by publications in national and international academic journals, books and monographs, as well as through participation in national and international events, congresses and conferences; one also has to have the pedagogical and organizational skills required for academic work.

    For the title of lecturer, one needs to hold a doctoral degree, have published in national and international academic journals, show good results in classes, and have a good knowledge of the field in question. The Higher Education Act also contains parts related to the field of science and research.

    Among the objectives of higher education, the Act mentions:. Research activities are funded from the state budget, but mainly through various international programmes. One of the most important instruments is FP7 programme. Employers are not directly involved in the definition of curricula.

    In order to recruit future personnel, some companies offer scholarships to students and awards to the best students, and provide students with opportunities for practical placements and future employment. The Tempus programme has, to a considerable extent, supported higher education reform in Montenegro since , providing support for curricula development and university governance and also providing support to the Ministry of Education and Science as regards the introduction of the new law on the recognition and assessment of educational certificates, so as to create a NQF for higher education.

    The major contribution of Tempus through curriculum development projects centred on the revision and modernisation of curricula and the introduction of new Bachelor and Master programmes. University management projects have been of the utmost importance to the University of. Montenegro, especially at the time the new Higher Education Act was to be adopted, as well as the Statute of the University. The experience and support of foreign experts in this phase was of particular importance for higher education reform in Montenegro, and it created a basis for further development of the HE system.

    Tempus IV, as a continuation of the previous successful programme phase, focuses more on regional projects addressing civil society, making linkages with the labour market and the economy, although the focus still remains on curricula reform and university governance projects. It involves the development of central European university networks, made up of various individual networks, which promote academic mobility, mainly among students. Up to now, more than students and academic staff have been able to take advantage of opportunities for mobility under the CEEPUS programme.

    In order to increase student and staff mobility, a number of measures have been taken at both the national and the institutional levels, so that universities participate in mobility programmes. Agreement III has been signed. Apart from various bilateral and cooperation agreements between the University of Montenegro and various universities worldwide, the University of Montenegro successfully participates in two projects under the former Erasmus Mundus — External Cooperation Window, called Basileus and JoinEuSEE, and so far there have been 61 instances of student mobility.

    There are also certain scholarships offered to Montenegrin students by foreign governments.

    The higher education reforms that started in in Montenegro are still continuing. From the beginning, these reforms were intended to help achieve the Bologna objectives. The legal framework created in , as a basis for HE reforms and implementation of the Bologna principles, now needs to be changed and amended.

    At the moment, changes and amendments to the Higher Education Act are under way which will primarily focus on the financing of higher education, with special emphasis on the social dimension, including the provisions on private HEIs and the rights of students from private HEIs, the structure of the Council of Higher Education, stronger involvement of students in the Council of HE etc. A Strategy for the Development of a National Qualification Framework was adopted by the Government of Montenegro in , and a working group was established to work on the preparation of the National Qualification Framework Act, which will be a life-long learning NQF.

    The second part of the project is related to quality assurance in Montenegro, and the quality assurance experts are working closely with the quality assurance centre recently established at the University of Montenegro with the support of WUS World University Service Austria. A network of the quality assurance offices that exist in each university unit has been established.

    Documents on the functioning of the quality assurance network have been adopted, and Guidelines for internal quality assurance are under preparation. As part of project IPA , strategic documents on quality assurance policy, strategy and plan and informatics support software and hardware for the more efficient functioning of the quality assurance centre are also being drawn up. The creation of the NQF and the further development of quality assurance have, from the very beginning, been the greatest challenges in the field of higher education.

    One of the biggest challenges is the creation of the Strategy for Higher Education Development. Under the Higher Education Act, the Council of Higher Education is to work on a proposal for strategy, and this will be supported by World Bank experts. In the commission report, certain recommendations were made that can serve as guidelines for further development and the improvement of quality in higher education.

    One of the issues mentioned in this report is the establishment of better links with the world of work. Local parliaments are largely inactive, perform little oversight, and most lack their own premises—some even meet in hotels or restaurants. Nevertheless, some progress was made on local self-governance in In June, the state-level government adopted an analysis of the functioning of local self-government and, a month later, approved legislative changes including a requirement that local governments publish all contracts with individuals and legal entities on their websites.

    While implementation is thus far weak, these changes represent a stride to improve local governance and transparency. According to some estimates, informal settlements comprise one-third of all construction in Montenegro. Changes to the Law on State Property in require local governments to gain the permission of the Ministry of Finance before selling their own property, sometimes causing conflicts such as the ongoing dispute between the ministry and the mayor of Podgorica. The State Audit Institution lacks the capacity to perform thorough and regular audits of local governments and local enterprises.

    As a result, many irregularities slip through. In a audit of Bar, a coastal municipality, the institution found violations of the Law on Public Procurement, significant arrears on taxes and civil servant salaries, bookkeeping and accounting problems, and omissions in municipal asset records. Following the introduction of the Law on Territorial Organization, a referendum was held in for a new municipality in Petnjica, a remote part of northern Montenegro, with an ethnic Bosniak Bosnian Muslim majority.

    Despite a low turnout, most voters supported the new municipality, and, on the eve of the October elections, the government backed the initiative—the first attempt to use the new legislation to add municipalities. As at the national level, local elections are held according to a proportional system, with a municipality as a single electoral unit. In April , regular elections were held for local parliaments in the municipalities of Herceg Novi and Tivat. Opposition parties accused the DPS of buying votes, and there were indeed reports of citizens approached to sell their votes in Herceg Novi.

    Judicial appointments in Montenegro are permanent, and judges enjoy functional immunity under the constitution. The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority, and parliament appoints its president. The current president is a former supreme state prosecutor, an appointment widely perceived as a conflict of interest. Judges and presidents of courts are appointed and dismissed by the Judicial Council, comprising a president and nine members.

    The Supreme Court president also presides over the Judicial Council, comprising four judges, one ruling and one opposition parliamentarian, two prominent lawyers, and the minister of justice. Under the constitution, the state prosecutor is a unique and independent public authority charged with prosecuting criminal and other punishable acts. The state prosecutor and his or her deputies are parliamentary appointees. The Judicial Council and Prosecutorial Council adopted rules for procedure that outline their organization structure, among other issues, and the new councils were appointed in June and July, respectively.

    The first written tests for judges were also held during the year. However, judges are still not appointed in a fair and unbiased manner, and many lack adequate training before assuming the bench, according to the EC. With no judicial budget to house judges, accommodation is funded on a case-by-case basis through loans from a government commission, deepening the dependence of the judiciary on the executive.

    Regarding accountability, some progress was made in , with the rulings of the Administrative Court and Appellate Court made available to the public. Ethics and disciplinary commissions were also appointed. With many of its verdicts ignored by state bodies, citizens and companies often simply abandon complaints, to the detriment of rule of law.

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    The Constitutional Court has seven members appointed by a simple parliamentary majority. It lacks independence and is notorious for lengthy proceedings and delays in controversial judgments. Department of Justice on corruption allegations in the Telekom privatization.

    In general, efficiency is problematic.